Samples that were collected in the early part of the period of record were analyzed at a USGS laboratory in Columbus, Ohio, that operated until 1973 (Durum, 1978). Davidson, D.M., Jr., 1977, Reconnaissance geologic map of Alice Lake quadrangle, Cook County, Minnesota: Minnesota Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map M-33, scale 1:24,000. To download a printer friendly PDF version of this information click here.

The suggested citation for the information on this page is: Mast, M.A., and Turk, J.T., 1999, Environmental characteristics and water quality of Hydrologic Benchmark Network stations in the Midwestern United States, 1963-95: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1173-B, 130 p. All of the tables and figures are numbered as they appear in each circular. The Ely Subway is a closed pedestrian tunnel under the mouth of the Ely. Average annual runoff from the basin was 28 cm from 1966 through 1995 (Mitton and others, 1996). During the big-pine era, as much as 70 percent of big white and red pines were harvested in BWCAW, and several major fires burned large areas of forest. Birch Lake is the largest Ely-area … As the pollution of the river abated, so fish populations slowly returned to the river from the many small tributaries. A typical soil profile has a thin surface layer of organic matter over a subsoil of gravelly, sandy loam that has an accumulation of organic matter and iron and aluminum oxides. The most notable pattern observed was in sulfate, which showed a period of elevated concentrations during the late 1980's. Baker, L.A., 1991, Regional estimates of atmospheric dry deposition, in Charles, D.F., ed., Acidic deposition and aquatic ecosystems-Regional case studies: New York, Springer-Verlag, p. 645-652. This improvement of forest resources, in combination with the development of a wood-pulp industry, resulted in the pulpwood era of logging that lasted from 1935 to 1978. Average monthly air temperatures range from -14.4×C in January to 19.2×C in July (National Climatic Data Center, 1996).

It is not associated with the Environment Agency or any other supplier of river level information.

Bailey, R.G., Avers, P.E., King, T., and McNab, W.H., eds., 1994, Ecoregions and subregions of the United States with supplementary table of map unit descriptions: Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, scale 1:7,500,000(also at URL, accessed 1998). Mucky peats are poorly drained soils that form in bogs and lowland areas surrounding lakes and streams. Solute concentrations measured at site 1 were less than the first- quartile concentrations reported for the HBN station during the entire period of record (table 26), except for calcium and silica concentrations, which were higher. The course of the River Ely has since been changed at other places too, including for … Flowing through Talbot Green, the Ely is joined by the Afon Clun at Pontyclun. The major visitor effects on the ecosystem are disturbance of vegetation and soils and degradation of water quality around established campsites.

After establishment of the central laboratory system, samples were analyzed at a laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah, from 1973 through 1975 and at the NWQL in Arvada, Colo., from 1976 through 1995. The predominance of these solutes in stream water is attributed to the weathering of calcium-rich plagioclase and pyroxene minerals in the bedrock and till. Pettyman, D.H., 1978, Soil survey of Kawishiwi area, Minnesota-Parts of Lake and Cook Counties in Superior National Forest: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service, 35 p. Schertz, T.L., Wells, F.C., and Ohe, D.J., 1994, Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 94-4213, 49 p. Siegel, D.I., and Ericson, D.W., 1980, Hydrology and water quality of the copper-nickel study region, northeastern Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 80-739, 87 p. Siegel, D.I., 1981, Effect of snowmelt on the quality of Filson Creek and Omaday Lake, northeastern Minnesota: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 81-66, 81 p. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1993, Final environmental impact statement for the BWCA wilderness management plan and implementation schedule: Forest Service, Eastern Region, Superior National Forest. The river has flooded its banks on several occasions including 2008 when 27 homes were flooded, and in 2011, 2012 and in 2020.[4]. These results may indicate that biological processes are important in controlling stream chemistry, particularly in wetland areas where reducing conditions in the soils may remove sulfate from the surface- water system. The tunnel opened in 1900 replacing a chain ferry, and was used by workers at Cardiff Docks and Penarth Dock. Even after the construction of sewage treatment works at Miskin and Rhiwsaeson, the quality of the effluent continued to cause pollution until the late 1980s. The most notable spatial pattern in stream chemistry was that concentrations of the weathering-derived cations varied by less than a factor of two, whereas alkalinity varied by almost a factor of eight. 90.04, Turbidimetric Sulfate Method, issued December 21, 1989, at URL, accessed 1997). The upland areas are dominated by jack pine, quaking aspen, and birch and commonly have an understory of northern red oak, black spruce, or fir.

This page maintained by Nichole Bisceglia. The anorthosites are composed mostly of calcic plagioclase (greater than 80 percent) and variable amounts of olivine, pyroxene, and iron oxide minerals (Davidson, 1969). Table 27. Flat V weir. It was closed in 1965.[1][2][3]. In most winters, permanent ice cover is established on almost all lakes and streams, and a seasonal snowpack covers the basin from about mid-November to mid-April.